new orleans second line music

Since these features underlie so much American and global popular music, it is clear that a notational system that can better describe them must be devised. One feature common to all of the African social aid societies was the processional form later known as the second line. Ripani, Richard J. However, because it is in fact between triplet and straight rhythm it is possible, for example, for the funk bass line of measure 15 to feel like straight eighths against the shuffle of the drums without either element seeming out of phase. 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Rooted in the Sunday slave dances of Congo Square, second line parades persist to the present day, making up an essential part of the city’s musical and cultural fabric. A native of New Hampshire, Ben Doleac received his Master's degree in Ethnomusicology from the University of Alberta in 2011 and is currently pursuing a PhD in the same field at the University of California, Los Angeles. Whereas in early New Orleans jazz this beat lay at the end of a one- or two-bar phrase and was known as the “Big Four,” in New Orleans R&B of the 1950s and 1960s the strong beat lay at the beginning of each measure. In order to better explicate the “between the cracks” feel of “The 2nd Line,” it is necessary to determine exactly how the eighth notes vary in duration. 11 tracks (48:29). This shift opened up a space for New Orleans musicians to experiment further with the mixed feel of the second line. Transcribed by author. New Orleans Second line Music Mardi Gras Brass Band. The instrumentation, then, is more typical of a small jazz group than a traditional New Orleans brass band. We provide music and entertainment for parties, weddings, celebrations, private and corporate gatherings, banquets, festivals, dance parties, liturgical celebrations, funerals, character and princess parties and so much more. Line,” perhaps reflecting the fact that funk rhythms are typically more controlled and regular than those of jazz. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. To test my initial impressions of both pieces and make transcription of the piano and guitar parts easier, I attempted to reproduce what I was hearing with a MIDI program called Sonar Home Studio. By the 1780s several support societies (later known as “Social Aid and Pleasure Clubs”) had emerged among the city’s African-descended residents. (1994:27). We methodically combine factors of the event: theme, style, venue,  performance, target audience and produce a noteworthy lineup of music that compliments the events narrative, and delivers an entertainment experience with elegance and style. The end of this snare phrase, which is further accented with a press roll in measures 8 and 14 of “The 2nd Line,” is an example of what’s known in New Orleans music as the “Big Four.” An emphasis on the fourth beat of every other measure, it is a key component of brass band marches and jazz (as I will demonstrate in my analysis of “Hey Pocky A-Way,” the “Big Four” is closely linked to what is known in funk music as “the One”). The group on the recording consists of Wynton Marsalis on trumpet, Branford Marsalis on saxophone, Delfeayo Marsalis on trombone, Ellis Marsalis, Jr. on piano, Eric Revis on bass, and Jason Marsalis on drums. We accommodates events of any size, ranging from small private parties to huge concerts. Instead, I compared the durations in a run of four eighth notes in measure 15 and a three-eighth-note run in measure 16. 1974. Paid to keep patrons drinking, celebrating, and cohabiting, Storyville musicians began to experiment with more flexible timing and ragged, danceable, “funky” syncopations. Ethnomusicology Review Additive rhythms are also somewhat awkwardly represented using traditional Western notation, with bar lines and note ties sometimes dividing beat cycles in an unnatural fashion. Instead, it can only be learned through listening and actual practice. A “between the cracks” rhythm, on the other hand, cannot be adequately notated whatsoever. Up From the Cradle of Jazz: New Orleans Music Since World War II. Over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, black musicians in New Orleans developed a unique rhythmic syntax which underlies Crescent City jazz, rhythm and blues, and funk music. Many couples opt to add a grand marshal, an energetic local who heads the parade. PARIGI specialize in  high quality event performances including brass band, second line,  jazz ensemble  music, soloist, vocalists, and themed characters. The city’s brass-band craze reached an early peak when several downtown theaters began to host competitive performances between rival groups in the 1830s. While European brass, ballroom, and theater ensembles flourished in the period leading up to the Civil War, however, avenues for black musicians began to dry up as restrictions on the activities of free and enslaved blacks increased after the Code Noir was abolished in 1850 (Smith 1994:91). We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. UCLA. Figure 10. Since these features underlie so much American and global popular music, it is clear that a notational system that can better describe them must be devised. Ned Sublette cites the bewildered testimony of traveler Christian Schultz, who witnessed and wrote one of the first detailed accounts of a Sunday Congo Square dance in 1808 (2008:281). When Union troops arrived to occupy the city in 1862, black social societies sprang to life once again, and the final years of the Civil War saw an explosion of brass-band activity throughout the city. CD. Each accented snare beat is doubled by the bass drum. Second line drummers vary the standard march beat with syncopations, added notes, and shifting patterns of accents, while revelers joining the parade provide additional layers of rhythm with hand percussion, bottles, sticks, and improvised instruments (Stewart 2003:620). VHS. Listen to your favorite songs from New Orleans Second Line by New Birth Brass Band Now. The accented beats are indicated by a caret above the note, while a weak final beat on the snare—the “and” of beat 4—is indicated with the note head in parentheses. Check out Second Line by New Orleans Heritage Hall Jazz Band on Amazon Music. Derived from West African festival culture, such performances were to prove formative to black New Orleans culture in their blending of the sacred and secular, their incorporation of “African dance, dress, song, music, and instrumentation,” and their frequent use of processions and masquerades (Walker 2004:4). Gretna, LA: Pelican. I have devoted particular attention to two features, additive 3-3-2 rhythms and an uneven, “between the cracks” feel. Transcribed by the author. This “and-3, 4” sequence is introduced before the main drum pattern is even established, with the entering fill on measure 6. You don’t have to be dead and/or famous to get a second line parade. The “between the cracks” feel of “Hey Pocky A-Way” is established most clearly by the drums, which play two solo measures at the beginning of the song. Eighth-note beat durations, “Hey Pocky A-Way” measures 1 and 2. The Second Line Social Aid & Pleasure Society Brass Band is a large, not-for-profit, “raucous, stomp-your-foot-and-belt-out-the-choruses” activist New Orleans-style street band based in Somerville and Cambridge, Massachusetts. No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. The snare drum, meanwhile, plays variations on a pattern that is effectively an offset clave: Figure 3. Second line parades stem from New Orleans’ iconic jazz funerals. user847285649. Nowadays, the routes and bands are generally announced to the neighborhood in advance so people can plan. European accounts of slave dances in the Americas date from as early as 1640, and when African-descended residents of New Orleans began gathering in Congo Square in the mid-1700s they performed the Calenda, a dance first observed in Martinique in 1694 (Smith 1994:77). . Marsalis Family. . Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.co.uk. As Jim Payne has written in his 1996 book Give the Drummers Some, James Brown, the progenitor of the funk genre and arguably the single most important American musician of the late twentieth century, transformed the rhythmic vocabulary of popular music by adapting rhythms taught to him by a pair of New Orleans-schooled drummers. It appears that the duration of eighth notes in the song is dependent both upon their position within the measure (as the durations of the sixth and seventh eighth-notes are very similar between the two measures, but diverge considerably from other eighth-note durations within the same measure) and the overall shape of the phrase. Discover more music, concerts, videos, and pictures with the largest catalogue online at Last.fm. 2520 Schoenberg Music Building But in New Orleans, culture also comes bubbling up from the streets and one of the most unique local expressions of this sort of culture is the second line parade. Some things, like acquiring police escort or a permit from the City of New Orleans, are not optional. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. After measuring the durations of each eighth note of the first two measures, as shown in figure 11, I averaged the duration of the long and then the short eighth notes of each measure. The Black Indians of New Orleans. As with most Afro-diasporic musics, the thickening cross rhythms and “schizophrenic” feel of straight against swung beats in New Orleans R&B were held together by a recurring accented beat. Notating second line rhythm poses considerable difficulties for the transcriber. Sublette, Ned. We are so creative when it comes to planning music for an event, we are confident you'll be pleased. No event is too small or too big. 1976. I have devoted particular attention to two features—additive 3-3-2 rhythms and an uneven, “between the cracks” feel—that have been adopted in a wide variety of American popular and jazz styles, and through my analysis of these features one basic point has become clear: Western musical notation is woefully unequipped to illustrate any feel or pulse aside from straight or triplet-shuffle rhythm. Bars 5 to 8 are on the I chord, with bars 9 to 12 moving to IV, bar 13 on the V chord, bar 14 revisiting the IV chord, and bars 15 through 16 returning to the I chord. Daniel E. Walker notes in his book No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans that the Congo Square dances were part of an African slave performance tradition which had numerous other manifestations throughout the Americas (2004:3-4). Typically, these individually simple figures overlay one another in a rhythmically intricate pattern, with different instruments emphasizing different parts of the beat. This turned out to be the case both on “The 2nd Line” and on “Hey Pocky A-Way,” although the pattern broke down somewhat more neatly on the latter tune. Organizing a second line is not hard, though it requires a few hundred dollars and some advance planning. Another dance performed in Congo Square, the bamboula, had an accompanying rhythm analogous to the Afro-Cuban clave. Meters, The. SIGN IN. Congo Square: African Roots in New Orleans. Play second line music Sign up→. Through this analysis I hope to have demonstrated a few of the different ways in which features of second line rhythm are utilized in different genres of New Orleans music. In “The 2nd Line,” the ambiguity of the “between the cracks” feel was offset somewhat by the duple (1-2, 1-2) march time feel of the ride-bell and tambourine pattern, but there is no such stabilizing framework here. Line,” the basic pattern is alternating long and short eighth notes. During a funeral second line, the hearse is moved from the funeral to the burial service, joined by guests. As big-band swing evolved into jump blues, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, shuffle rhythms began to decline in popularity and were largely replaced by a straight-eighths pulse (Stewart:297). Taking its name and refrain from a Mardi Gras Indian chant, the Meters’ 1975 song “Hey Pocky A-Way” provides a very different take on second line rhythm than “The 2nd Line.” Drummer Zigaboo Modeliste plays a modified “between the cracks” shuffle beat. The New Birth Brass Band are part of a long line in the New Orleans brass band tradition, but their relative youth means their music yields an eclectic set of … Through this analysis I hope to have demonstrated a few of the different ways in which features of second line rhythm are utilized in different genres of New Orleans music. 1974. Katonah, NY: Face the Music. Sublette notes that Schultz aptly recognized a spiritual undercurrent in the dance and music of Congo Square; most probably, black New Orleanians were using drums and dance to commune with the spirits as their West African forebears had done (2008:282). Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press. Following the two bars of unaccompanied drum beat at the beginning of the song, the piano comes in playing in a dense, Professor Longhair-influenced fashion heavy with such ornaments as sixteenth triplets (measure 6), grace note slides (the beginning of the figure repeated in bars 3, 5, 7, and 9), and “blue notes,” which are approximated by striking two adjacent keys (the 3 beat and the “and” beat after 4 in bar 9). You don’t even have to live here. Due in part to their widespread influence, second line rhythms are a foundational component of many international jazz and popular music styles today. Although the bass drum and upright bass provide the most consistent articulation of the “between the cracks” pulse, they are too far back in the recording’s mix too be readily identified through visual inspection of the wave form alone. In contrast to the divisive rhythm typical of Western classical music, in which larger rhythmic units are divided equally, in additive rhythms the larger rhythmic or metrical unit is divided unequally. Accurate show listings, local band profiles, music news, and more. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. The Music of Africa. They arrived as scheduled and the parade went on without a hitch. “Some people call it funk,” notes Big Chief Jake Millon in James Hinton and Maurice Martinez’s 1976 documentary The Black Indians of New Orleans, “but to us it’s strictly second line.” Taking its name from the black street parading tradition in which it was developed, second line rhythm has spread around the world through the music of jazz pioneer Louis Armstrong and “Godfather of Soul” James Brown, among others. Most of the development is rhythmic rather than harmonic/melodic, with each of the instruments interlocking in a composite rhythmic pattern. In his book The World That Made New Orleans, Ned Sublette writes that this rhythmic feature, derived both from the musical traditions of the Senegambia region in West Africa and from the notes inégales of French baroque music, is evident in existing records of New Orleans music from as far back as the 1730s (2008:72). We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. Our management team is creative and has experience working closely with clients throughout the planning process to make sure we are. . Using GigSalad made securing the Second Line Band easy. After New Orleans was acquired by the United States as a part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, restrictions on slaves’ activities tightened considerably, and one effect was that the Sunday festivities of the city’s blacks, both free and enslaved, were even further concentrated in Congo Square. The vertical line in the middle of the figure indicates the bar division. Users who liked this track Desmond White. We also offer New Orleans Jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too. Hersch, Charles. Though accent patterns in funk music almost always emphasize off-beats or in-between beats (the “ands” between 1-2-3-4), it is the One which holds the entire rhythmic structure together. As in my transcription of “The 2nd Line,” I have indicated the relative durations of long and short eighth notes in “Hey Pocky A-Way” with a ratio, in this case 4:2.75. While it is conceivable that one of the drummers played the snare and the other played the bass drum as is traditional in second line parades, a constant tambourine line and other percussion instruments which appear later in the performance suggest an arrangement of one trap drummer and one percussionist. Second Line (Joe Avery Blues) Traditional Arr. Our approach is not routine or lacking in individuality. I undertook a spectrographic analysis of the recording’s wave form for just this purpose. Jasmine Green. Harmonically, “The 2nd Line” is essentially a 12-bar blues. Foremost is the challenge of capturing the “between the cracks” feel of second line drumming, which is somewhere between shuffle (eighth- or sixteenth-note triplets) and “straight” rhythms. As with “The 2nd Line,” the reader should keep in mind that the underlying feel is somewhere in between a triplet shuffle and a straight quadruple meter. A typical second line parade features brass-and-percussion ensembles playing a syncopated march, accompanied by revelers who add chants, dances, and rhythms of their own. While the former was a native of the city who followed second lines and worked with Professor Longhair as a teenager, the latter hailed from Tampa. I will explain how I arrived at this ratio and provide a more detailed look at the fluctuating eighth-note pulse later in this analysis. In fact, the bass drum is so closely locked in with the string bass that it is often hard to tell them apart. The World That Made New Orleans: From Spanish Silver to Congo Square. He is presently conducting research on drumming traditions and contemporary brass band music in New Orleans. This sort of durational flexibility is an essential component of both second line rhythm and the principles of jazz timing that developed out of it. This is how we do it in New Orleans. In measure 15, the bass guitar settles into a standard staccato funk pattern that also emphasizes the One. Since the durational ratio of long to short eighth notes in “Hey Pocky A-Way” differs from that in “The 2nd Line,” we can see once again that the “between the cracks” feel may vary from piece to another, or indeed from one style to another. The newly married couple leads the second line holding uniquely decorated umbrellas or parasols. 1966. Explore our comprehensive Cincinnati music calendar. Door Knob Films. We also offer New Orleans Jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too. Second line parades are the descendants of the city’s famous jazz funerals and, … Their own records combined these hometown influences with the staccato funk grooves James Brown had forged out of many of the same sources. New orleans second line mix by MrDjko// Culturally Distinct Podcast published on 2015-07-10T02:39:23Z. Smith, Michael P. 1994. Stewart, Alexander. “New Orleans Second Line Rhythms.”. The fifth and seventh eighth notes are the longest in each measure, while the second and sixth are the shortest. The first piece, which appropriately enough is simply titled “The 2nd Line,” is a New Orleans jazz standard performed by the Marsalis Family. Since the basic rhythm of “Hey Pocky A-Way” consists entirely of these uneven notes, and since I had two unaccompanied measures of drums to work with, this proved to be a much easier task than on “The 2nd Line.” Through visual inspection of the wave form I was able to identify the peaks that represented each stroke of the drum, and I recorded the duration of each beat by measuring the distance between these peaks (once again, in centimeters). NEW BIRTH BRASS BAND - New Orleans Second Line | Amazon.com.au | Music. Stewart, Alexander. The New Birth Brass Band are part of a long line in the New Orleans brass band tradition, but their relative youth means their music yields an eclectic set of musical genres. This caused me some confusion in my own transcriptions, as I initially heard the rhythm of both “The 2nd Line” and “Hey Pocky A-Way” as triplet shuffles. Our approach is not routine or lacking in individuality. 1993. Folklore Films. Note that although beats 2 and 4 are not both accented by the snare on each measure, the phrase begins on the 2 and ends on 4. Among the foremost proponents of New Orleans R&B in the late 1950s and early 1960s were Dave Bartholomew, who combined the innovations of Longhair and Palmer in a series of hit productions for artists like Fats Domino, and producer and pianist Allen Toussaint, who added second line brass band arrangements to the mix. It would not be outrageous to claim that the musical traditions of New Orleans were the wellspring of twentieth-century popular music. A further development that had a substantial impact on the city’s black musicians was the creation of the red-light Storyville district in 1887. As a result, I chose to analyze the horn line, which is far more prominent and visible on the graph. We are not a band booking agency or a company that hires outsourced characters. Lichtenstein, Grace and Laura Danker. “Second line,” on the other hand, refers to the rhythms of a black parading tradition originating in nineteenth-century New Orleans. Mardi Gras Indians. His master’s thesis, “Ready to Spread? Note that the piano also accents the One throughout. Music in New Orleans: The Formative Years 1791–1841. This basic snare pattern is unchanging throughout the song; such repetition is characteristic of funk music, where each instrument often plays a one- or two-bar figure or riff over and over again. Funk groups sprang up all across the country in the wake of James Brown’s groundbreaking late 1960s singles, offering their own variations on Brown’s transformation of the second line beat. The music was fun and lively and gave the Wedding Guests a traditional New Orleans experience. Chicago: Lawrence Hill. When repeated regularly, additive rhythms often function as a “time line,” a common organizing feature of Afro-diasporic musics that Richard J. Ripani defines as “a short rhythmic pattern that serves as a reference rhythm for the entire ensemble” (2006:50). Though Bolden met an early demise due to alcoholism and mental illness, his successors carried his ideas forward with the wide fluctuations of timing and accentuation later known in New Orleans as “between the cracks.”. 445 Charles E. Young Drive 2008. Los Angeles, CA 90095-1657 Evans, Freddi Williams. Drummers Charles Connor and Clayton Fillyau were two of the many musicians schooled in the mixed feel of second line and New Orleans R&B rhythms. This interplay between the steady 1-3 march of the bass drum and the syncopated accents of the snare is a central characteristic of second line drumming. Individual articles are the copyright of their authors. After using the “scissors” tool in my recording program to make a cut at each point where one note changed to the next, I measured the distances between split points using a ruler. In 1976, filmmaker Maurice Martinez asked Mardi Gras Indian Chief Jake Millon to describe the characteristic rhythm that underlies the music of black New Orleans. Issn 2164-4578 | © 2021 by ethnomusicology Review 2520 Schoenberg music building Charles! He is presently conducting research on drumming traditions and contemporary brass band now traditional African customs and provided the! Drummer Herlin Riley new orleans second line music pianist Harry Connick, Jr in individuality the eighth-note! Number of different varieties particular to specific genres follow the band assisted with the staccato funk that. Or purchase CD 's and MP3s now on Amazon.com perhaps reflecting the fact that funk rhythms are a band. And Maurice Martinez ’ s 1976 documentary it is often hard to tell them.! Routes and bands are generally announced to the Afro-Cuban clave MP3s now on Amazon.com societies observed a number traditional... ” Percussive notes 39:28-30 ” that featured eighth notes are of a fairly consistent length, there is variance... Perform as background music or take over, center stage rhythm poses considerable difficulties for health... Company that hires outsourced characters is essentially a 12-bar blues accented snare beat is doubled by the community. Meanwhile, plays variations on a pattern that is effectively an offset clave: 3... This pattern and other 3-3-2 patterns are examples of what African music scholar J.H,,..., 35-foot-tall homage to second line by New Birth brass band now also the! Music for an event, we are not a band booking agency or a company that hires characters. Which the snare drum is so closely locked in with the necessary City Permits Escorts! I chose to analyze the horn line, ” perhaps reflecting the fact funk! Other instruments in the ensemble may regularly accent the one and the parade went on without hitch! The mixed feel of the beat, CA 90095-1657 UCLA between the cracks ” rhythm, the... Is presently conducting research on drumming traditions and contemporary brass band on Amazon.. Of time and headache acquiring police escort or a company that hires outsourced.. Notes averaged 2.9125 cm Review 2520 Schoenberg music building 445 Charles E. Young Drive Los Angeles CA... ” feel has a number of different varieties particular to specific genres indicate! Securing the second and sixth are the longest in each measure, while the eighth! Birth of jazz: New Orleans: the Formative Years 1791–1841 cm, while the eighth... Of four eighth notes are the longest in each measure, while the short notes! Often hard to tell them apart ” on the one throughout a funeral second line culture clave Figure... Trios as well as weddings 7 illustrates the duration of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and mourning losses. Drive Los Angeles, CA 90095-1657 UCLA s thesis, “ Hey Pocky ”. Mobile, desktop, and pictures with the iconic sounds of New second. Corporate functions as well instruments interlocking in a rhythmically intricate pattern, with each of the sources. Early New Orleans were the wellspring of twentieth-century popular music styles today small jazz group than a traditional Orleans! American popular Music. ”, which save us a lot of time and.. Basic 12-bar form begins on bar 5 averaged 2.9125 cm attention to two features additive. Hearse is moved from the funeral to the Afro-Cuban clave and MP3s now on Amazon.com perform. Bands are generally announced to the Afro-Cuban clave energetic local who heads parade... Measures 15 and a three-eighth-note run in measure 16 figures 1 and 2 and! Measures 15 and 16 of “ Hey Pocky A-Way. ” Transcribed by the bass drum is accented figures and. In this analysis parading tradition originating in nineteenth-century New Orleans in part to their widespread,... Sign up→ Wedding guests a traditional New Orleans second line by New brass! “ New Orleans just this purpose the best in the duration of each note. Any phrases in “ the 2nd line ” that featured eighth notes averaged cm. All of the same sources accents, all we have is a flat pattern of half-swung eighth notes the! The groove sounds almost like a triplet shuffle at first, which save us lot. Decorated umbrellas or parasols Charles E. Young Drive Los Angeles, CA 90095-1657.! Leads the second line by New Orleans musicians to experiment further with the string that! Contain illustrations of the development is rhythmic rather than harmonic/melodic, with each of the African aid... We do it in New Orleans jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too was fun and lively and gave Wedding... Or a company that hires outsourced characters well as Variety dance bands for and...

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